Population dynamics is fundamental both to national development processes and to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Demographic situation in Ukraine is often characterized as a crisis due to a combination of population decline and deterioration of its "demographic quality" - first of all, health and well-being of people, opportunities for full realization of their potential. The contemporary demographic reality must be consistently studied, well-understood and comprehended. Based on such comprehension and acceptance, ways must be sought to adequately and effectively respond to current demographic processes striving to develop human capital, refraining from alarmist rhetoric and short-sighted policy decisions. Perhaps, the most important step towards ensuring the country’s demographic resilience is to conduct a full-fledged population census in compliance with international standards and recommendations.